Abstracts are provided in the language submitted.

Men are more prone to acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than women. Severity and capacity to regenerate after AKI are important determinants of CKD progression, and of patient morbidity and mortality in the hospital setting. To determine sex differences during injury and recovery we have generated a female and male renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) pig model, which represents a major cause of AKI. Although no differences were found in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels between both sexes, females exhibited higher mononuclear infiltrates at basal and recovery, while males showed more tubular damage at injury. Global transcriptomic analyses of kidney biopsies from our IRI pig model revealed a sexual dimorphism in the temporal regulation of genes and pathways relevant for kidney injury and repair, which was also detected in human samples. Enrichment analysis of gene sets revealed five temporal and four sexual patterns governing renal IRI and recovery. Overall, the study constitutes an extensive characterization of the time and sex differences occurring during renal IRI and recovery at gene expression level and offers a template of translational value for further study of sexual dimorphism in kidney diseases.

Dr. St├ęphane Nemours